How the Tiger and the Tigris Got their Names Updated Believe me, there’s nothing worse than an attack of etymological questions: it can turn a sober scholar into a foaming at the mouth lunatic in a trice. My apologies . but I’d like to take you with me around the bend. It’s all the fault of Isidore of Seville, who wrote a big big book, the Etymologies (in Latin), an encyclopedic account of just about everything known in the western world in the years around 600 prix d un bracelet pandora argent AD, when Isidore was alive. After the Bible, Etymologies was perhaps the most influential book vinted bracelet pandora in the Latin West for nearly a thousand years. If you wanted to know anything about what the ancients thought about art, music, bracelet pandora en bijouterie nature, God or grammar, you’d check with Isidore first thing. The only problem is, as Emily Wilson tells us (in an enjoyable review in the Times Literary Supplement, 3 Aug. 2007) that Isidore is like a bad search engine, with little or no bague en argent pierre noire control over his sources. Not for nothing is Isidore probleme fermoir bracelet pandora the patron saint of the Internet! Much of the information he provides is blatantly false and most of his supposed etymologies are complete twaddle. They bague en argent homme tete de mort go like this: “Health (salus) takes its name from salt (sal), for nothing is better for us than salt (sal) and sun (sol)” “Cats are called cats because bracelet pandora pour bébé they bracelet pandora papillon catch mice (catuma captura vocant) “Days (dies) are so called from ‘the gods’ (deus, ablative plural diis). cartable licorne Or, as Isidore bracelet pandora strasbourg himself might have put it ‘days are called after dayities.’ Groan. So photos bracelet pandora avec charms I was surprised when Prof. Wilson seemed to take him seriously on a point of Persian etymology. This is what tripped me up: Isidore knows that Latin draws on other peut on changer fermoir bracelet pandora languages: [he writes] “the tiger (tigris) is so called because of its rapid flight, for this is what the Persians and Medes call an arrow.” And Isidore added helpfully, “The Tigris River is named after the tiger because it is the fastest of all rivers.” This conflation of tiger (the beast) and Tigris (the river) continues to this bague en argent turquoise et corail day and so does their supposed derivation from the Persian for ‘arrow’ (check your dictionary: most, but not all, still give it; and it’s all over the internet as well). The idea first appeared in Greek in Geography (early 1st C. cover iphone x xs AD), when he says of the river Tigris (Gr. Tigris) : because of its swiftness . whence the name Tigris, since the Median word for “arrow” is “tigris.” And it bracelet pandora tours is picked up in Latin in Pliny’s Natural History (mid 1st C.), who describes the river: as soon raviver une bague en argent as it begins to flow, though with a slow current, has the name of Diglito. When its course becomes more rapid, it assumes the name of Tigris given to it on account of its swiftness, that word signifying an arrow in the Median language. licorne kawaii But why, I asked myself, should anyone believe that the name of a river which runs back in its history to the Sumerians should have a Persian name, and one so far fetched as ”arrow”; and why would an Indian animal, albeit one that ranged into Persian territory, share the same etymology of ‘arrow’ I fretted. This way lies madness . iphone 11 hoesje but I had to go on. Here is what I’ve come up with in my quest. I don’t question, of course, that the Greeks may have actually learnt both words in Persia or that, if they did, in that sense they do come from Persian. But that is all I comment s’ouvre un bracelet pandora accept. Let’s start with the river. veste pokemon It’s the easier of the two. What we know: The Sumerian name for the river was Idigna, which seems simply to have meant ‘running water’ or possibly ‘river with high banks’. When the bracelet pandora 2 couleur Semitic speaking Akkadians arrived in the region they faut bracelet pandora borrowed the name, turning it into (I)Diq/gla(t) and note how close that is to the word Pliny recorded for the higher stream. The Semitic trail continues via the biblical Hebrew Hiddekel (one of the rivers running through Eden, Genesis 2:14) and the later Aramaic Deglath or Diglat, eventually to become Arabic Dil which is today pronounced in Iraq, I’m told, as Dijla. At first sight, the Old Persian Tigr seems to stick out like a sore thumb, looking completely different. But I’d bet a couple of Sassanian drachmas that Tigr comes from a bracelet pandora meilleur prix form rather like DIG LA: where D shifts to a T sound and L to R. ensemble de bijoux licorne In short, the Persians, too, seem to have adapted a name going back to Sumerian via the intermediary of local Semitic languages. So the bracelet pandora taille 15 Greeks were wrong to derive the river’s name from Persian tigra”sharp, pointed”, Avestan ” tigri”arrow”, and to imagine that the river ran at the speed of an arrow. Perhaps this is what they were told once they arrived in Persia, for folk etymology is always beguiling and words of unknown origin inevitably yield to a play of known words. But what about the animal, the tiger Could Isidore of Seville have possibly got this part right I doubt it. serviette licorne But it is a tough one. The beast is Babr (or Bebr) in Middle Persian. Surprisingly, this does not descend from any of the early Indian words for tiger (vyAghra, pRdAku, zArdUla). Note that the Sanskrit vyAghra means ‘who tears apart’, rather a better name for a ferocious animal than an anodyne bracelet pandora cherbourg ‘sharp, pointed’ or ‘arrow’ (“How, Daddy, did the tiger get its name” “It’s faster than a speeding arrow, son.” Just so.) So I went back and looked at the Greek history of the tiger. I suspect that we’ve been looking in slightly the wrong direction: I can see no reason that the Greeks would have first met up with the tiger in Persia. The animal only enters Greek writings after the Indian campaigns of Alexander the Great (who died in 323 BC). Alexander’s general, Nearchus, we are told, saw a tiger skin during the Indian campaign, but no tiger. King Seleucus monture bague en argent ‘the Victor’, first Seleucid ruler of Mesopotamia, sent a live tiger to Athens around 300 BC. This might have been an animal captured during his own Indian wars around 305 BC or, more likely, a royal gift sent to him by an Indian prince some time before his death in 297. Since, even in antiquity, the western range of the tiger seems limited to eastern Turkey, north Iran, and the wild lands between the Caspian and Black Seas, Seleucus’ tiger need vendre son bracelet pandora not have been of Persian origin; so where would Seleucus have learnt what the beast was called We have two clues: tiger is vagr in Armenian (Armenia then, remember, was roughly today’s Kurdish territory), and vigr in Georgian. Somewhere up that way, perhaps, on the roads to Bactria and Afghanistan, the Greeks first came across live tigers. The all knowing Pliny assures us that most tigers lived on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (in Hyrcania) and in India. But Pliny didn’t know much about tigers. On the contrary, he passed on this tall tale: The tiger . can run with terrific speed. To take the tiger’s cubs, the comment retrecir une bague en argent hunter prepares a fast horse and steals the tiger’s entire litter, and rides away, changing to fresh horses as necessary. The tiger, seeing that her cubs are gone, tracks them by scent and chases the hunter. When the hunter sees the tiger catching up, he bracelet pandora étoile drops one cub. The tiger stops to pick up the cub before resuming the chase.